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Printer’s dictionary

Apla – a uniform background in graphic techniques. Thanks to it we obtain e.g. white text on a dark background.

Creasing - pressing grooves in the right places of cardboard or paper, which aim is to facilitate folding. It is used among others in the case of packaging and book covers to facilitate folding. This is done with the use of special crease knives.

CMYK – four basic colours used in the process of printing. The desired shade or color is obtained by applying basic dyes kept in right proportions:
C -cyan
M -magenta
Y -yellow
K –black

Offset print –characterized by low unit costs of printing and high cost of production start-up. Printing is cost-effective when we have a large number of prints. It is a flat type of printing in which the image is transferred from the die to the groundwork i.e. sheet of paper.

Folding – allows single or multiple folding a sheet of paper (clear or printed) in half or in any other proportions. You can fold in different ways (in different directions) in order to achieve the required size and number of pages written.

Foiling - It consists of cardboard lamination with glossy or matt foil. This type of refinement is to increase the aesthetic value as well as to make the groundwork more rigid and protect it against the effects of mechanical, chemical actions or moisture. At high weights cardboard (for folders, carrier bags and packaging) it helps to avoid the risk of cracking the bends. Very often foiling is used as a base for UV varnishing. Thanks to it we reach the effect of emphasizing the matt of background and gloss of some graphics elements.

Paper format - standard sizes of paper used among others in sheet printing houses.

A1 610x860
A1+ 630x880
A2 610x430
A2+ 630x440
A3 305x430
A3+ 315x440
A4 305x215
A4+ 315x220
B1 700x1000
B2 700x500
B3 350x500
B4 350x250
B5 175x250

The maximum format of our print is B1

Paper weight - weight of 1 m² paper product in grams. Indirectly, this parameter is reflected in the thickness of paper: most paper weighting 100 g / m² has the thickness of 0.1 mm (accuracy 20%). The greater paper weight the more rigid this paper is. Choice of weights usually depends on the individual preferences of the client. The choice of weight, type of paper or cardboard underside color depends on what we want to do.

Examples for the use of different types of paper:

Art paper (gloss, matt):

  1. leaflets,
  2. brochures,
  3. catalogues,
  4. calendars,
  5. business- or visiting-cards.

Offset paper:

  1. books,
  2. brochures,
  3. catalogues,
  4. leaflets,
  5. forms,
  6. medicine leaflets.

Decorative paper:

  1. catalogues,
  2. business- or visiting-cards,
  3. brochures,
  4. menus,
  5. invitations,
  6. folders,
  7. diplomas,
  8. luxurious packages,
  9. greeting cards,
  10. tags,
  11. calendars,
  12. stationeries.

Self-adhesive paper:

  1. labels,
  2. stickers.

GC1 (white underside cardboard):

  1. postcards,
  2. product packages,
  3. blister cardboards,
  4. covers,
  5. interleaves,
  6. calendars,
  7. dry and deep-frozen food, sweets, medicines and cosmetics packages,
  8. business- or visiting-cards.

GC2 (cream-colored underside cardboard)

  1. packages for food, cosmetics,
  2. blister cards,
  3. board calendars,
  4. interleaves,
  5. covers,
  6. boards.

GD2 (grey underside cardboard):

  1. food packages,
  2. packages for industrial products (e.g.: footwear, tights boxes, etc.),
  3. production of paper haberdashery (e.g. backing to calendars, pads, cover of drafts, etc.),
  4. packaging of household chemicals (e.g. detergents),
  5. blister cardboard.

Number of print colours – in offset printing each color is associated with a new die for printing. Price for each of the output depends on the number of colors used in the graphic. When we deal with full color (for example, they show color photo) we say that there are four colors of CMYK. When in the graphic one, two or three colours appear (on one or the other side) then we usually talk about additional colors - pantone.

  1. 4/0 – one-sided print – full color
  2. 4/1 – two-sided print – full color + one color
  3. 4/2 - two-sided print – full color + two colors
  4. 4/3 - two-sided print – full color + three colors
  5. 4/4 - two-sided print – full color

Corrugating - this type of refining involves veneering with a thin layer of paper another - thicker one (e.g. solid or corrugated cardboard, so called microwave).

Print varnishing - as the name suggests, consists of covering printing with varnish. It is one of the ways of print refining. Various types of paint are used, depending on the effect we want to achieve. Dispersion or UV varnishes are used most often.

Dispersion varnish coating -this method of varnishing is first of all to protect print against any smearing. There are two options: gloss or matt. Depending on the type of paint used, it may give delicate shine or matt.
UV varnish coating -this type of varnishing significantly increases the aesthetic value of the package, label or folder. Just like dispersion varnish it comes in two versions: matt and glossy (gloss is used most commonly). After applying the varnish noticeable lightening or tarnishing appears. There is a possibility of applying varnish using two methods: total or selective. Thanks to the selective application of paint we can significantly gloss some elements.

Die - a general term for a form to make copies. Aluminum dies are used most often. Special CTP platesetters are used to prepare them. Thank to this device distinct exposed and unexposed places appear on the dies. Exposure causes that some places are prone to receipt of the ink and others are not. Each color corresponds to one die e.g. full color is 4 colors and thus four stencils.

Pantone (Colour) Matching System (PMS) - color identification system developed by Pantone Inc. from the United States. Colors are marked by number (e.g. PMS 130) with additional markings such as fluorescence characteristics, metallicity, etc. The basic scale describes 1114 colors. They are formed by mixing 15 pigments (including white and black), so their projection on the scales of CMYK and RGB is not obvious.

PDF - file format used for presentation, handling and printing text and graphics content created and promoted by Adobe Systems. Description language format is a stripped-down version of the PostScript programming language enriched with hypertext elements.

Open file - is the term for a file with a program stored in its native format (e.g. psd for Adobe Photoshop, indd for Adobe InDesign and cdr for CorelDRAW). As an open file we can also specify the "package", which is the file itself with recorded graphic design along with the files of all used fonts, graphics, etc. It is used to generate a PostScript file correctly.

Comp - compressed, usually prepared in screen resolution, the file is used only to verify visual accuracy of source file (open or closed). It does not set the target color nor work, nor the quality of the final product. As such, it is not used in the production process, but only in verifying the correctness of the source file.

Production file – a file generated by the RIP separated from mesh grid. Production files are generated from postscript files prepared according to specific technical specifications.

Closed file - work printed to a postscript file. In practice this means work written in a file, in which you cannot or should not make any more changes. Any changes or corrections should be made in the file open.

Proof (also called Cromalin or MatchPrint) - print compatible with files executed on a special printing press. Paper similar to art paper is used for this purpose. They are made in digital or analog form. It is so called color pattern. Thanks to it a printer (printing machine operator) is able to bring the target product color to proof.

Bleeds – area of the print that extends beyond the area of the product. Bleed ensures that the print area will be coming to the very edge after cutting, left over from the printing sheet.

Hot-stamping - is carried out using a special metal foil and convex stencils (so called hot-print plates). The dies are heated up to very high temperature. Reflection of the model on the dies takes place after coming into contact with the groundwork. As a rule, gold and silver foil is used for the purpose (although it does not exclude other colors). This method is primarily aimed at raising the aesthetic value of packaging and is to influence on gaining greater attention. It is a great way to increase the aesthetics of the package.

Dry pressing – involves highlighting certain elements, adds an extra, three-dimensional effect.

Punch - used in mass production printing, a tool to cut a specific shape off a sheet that is usually printed. Surface with permanently fixed blades is pressed to the printed paper and with one blow cuts from a sheet the complete, complex pattern, such as a grid box. Often the cutting blades (knives, die cutting knives) are accompanied by creasing strips (creasings), and sometimes by perforation strips (perforation knives).

Sample of color - is used to identify the color. It is used for precise color definition. The most popular templates are: PANTONE, HKS and CMYK. Samples of colors are used in various industries.